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23.10.2021

How CSS works: Understanding the cascade LogRocket Blog

However, if the conflicting declarations have the same level of importance/origin, the cascade moves on to consider selector specificity. To understand the CSS cascade better, it’s helpful to think of a CSS declaration as having “attributes”. As there are so many things that you could style using CSS, the language is broken down into modules. You’ll see reference to these modules as you explore MDN. Many of the documentation pages are organized around a particular module.

How does CSS work

Properties These are ways in which you can style an HTML element. (In this example, color is a property of the elements.) In CSS, you choose which properties you want to affect in the rule. Selector This is the HTML element name at the start of the ruleset. When CSS code is placed in a fully separate file, this is known as an external stylesheet.

color: orange;

Presenting a document to a user means converting it into a form usable by your audience. Browsers, like Firefox, Chrome, or Edge, are designed to present documents visually, for example, on a computer screen, projector, or printer. CSS lets you have multiple styles on one HTML page, therefore making the customization possibilities almost endless. Nowadays, this is becoming more a necessity than a commodity. You might have seen a website that fails to load completely and has a white background color with most of the text being blue and black. This means that the CSS part of the web page didn’t load correctly or it doesn’t exist altogether.

CSS on MDN The main entry point for CSS documentation on MDN, where you’ll find detailed reference documentation for all features of the CSS language. This rule sets a background color for the entire page. Change the color code to the color you https://www.globalcloudteam.com/ chose in What will my website look like?. Next, delete the existing rule you have in your style.css file. It was a good test, but let’s not continue with lots of red text. One example of JavaScript in action is boxes that pop up on your screen.

Selectors, Properties, and Values Described

Each node’s relationship is defined by how it connects with other DOM nodes, which can be child nodes, parent nodes or sibling nodes. Since this is the location where the content of the document and the CSS connect, a proper understanding of the DOM can better equip you to maintain, design and debug your CSS. JavaScript is a more complicated language than HTML or CSS, and it wasn’t released in beta form until 1995. Nowadays, JavaScript is supported by all modern web browsers and is used on almost every site on the web for more powerful and complex functionality. Every web page is made up of a bunch of these HTML tags denoting each type of content on the page.

How does CSS work

Fragments help you refer a user to a specific part of a web page — the fragment looks like an ID selector placed at the end of the URL. Overuse of descendant selectors can lead you to set up confusing rules that will make changes difficult for you down the line. Next up, find the HTML element you want to style with a unique CSS class.

The Architecture of a Modern Startup

It saves time from manually making changes to all the pages of a website. A single CSS file can be changed and it will affect css web development every page. To get back to its history, CSS 2.1 was released in 2004 and added layout and positioning among other things.

  • Once you’ve added a class to an element, you need to create rule sets for these classes in CSS.
  • They do come in handy if you working with component libraries that use inline styles or CSS libraries that you don’t control.
  • Overuse of descendant selectors can lead you to set up confusing rules that will make changes difficult for you down the line.
  • Selectors are what allows you to target specific HTML elements and apply style to them.
  • Important as an escape hatch for when all else fails (such as when working with 3rd-party styles).
  • Every piece of text, attribute and element within the markup language will become its own DOM node.
  • As there are so many things that you could style using CSS, the language is broken down into modules.

When you open a web page, your browser fetches the HTML and other programming languages involved and interprets it. The goal of this post is to, in plain English, teach you with the basics of HTML, CSS, and one of the most common programming languages, JavaScript. But before we begin, let’s get an idea of what programming languages actually are. We have removed the underline on our link on hover. You could remove the underline from all states of a link.

Applying CSS to the DOM

The CSS Cascade is the algorithm by which the browser decides which CSS styles to apply to an element — a lot of people like to think of this as the style that “wins”. After a CSS feature has been specified, then it is only useful for us in developing web pages if one or more browsers have implemented the feature. This means that the code has been written to turn the instruction in our CSS file into something that can be output to the screen. We’ll look at this process more in the lesson How CSS works.

How does CSS work

By keeping the styling information in a separate CSS file, it will be much easier to read and edit your HTML code. In other words, CSS is what makes a web page look good. While the default styles provided by web browsers are fine in a pinch, they’re usually not enough to create a truly unique and visually stunning website.

Cascading Style Sheets Explained In a Video Tutorial

Add the following lines , replacing the font-family assignment with your font-family selection from What will your website look like?. The property font-family refers to the font you want to use for text. This rule defines a global base font and font size for the whole page. Since is the parent element of the whole page, all elements inside it inherit the same font-size and font-family. This code links your page to a style sheet that loads the Open Sans font family with your webpage.

How does CSS work

In part because there are JavaScript things you can do specifically for manipulating classes. ID selectors are the most powerful type of selector in terms of CSS specificity. Meaning that they beat out other types of selectors and the styles defined within win. That sounds good, but that’s typically considered bad, because it’s nice to have lower-specificity selectors that are easier to override when needed.

How To Add CSS

New browsers will interpret the line using pixels, but then override it with the line using calc() as that line appears later in the cascade. In the example below I have used the British English spelling for color, which makes that property invalid as it is not recognized. All of the other CSS have been applied however; only the invalid line is ignored. The browser then fetches most of the resources that are linked to by the HTML document, such as embedded images, videos, and even linked CSS!